Cook linguine according to package directions, but do not add salt. Drain in a colander. Meanwhile, in a large skillet, combine broth, lemon juice, and bay leaf. Bring mixture to a boil over medium-high heat. Add shrimp; cook, covered, until shrimp just turn pink, about 2 minutes.
Remove shrimp from skillet; cover to keep warm. Reserve poaching liquid. In another skillet, heat oil over medium heat. Add onion, garlic, and tomato paste; cook, stirring frequently, for 5 minutes. Add reserved poaching liquid; cook until mixture thickens slightly, about 3 minutes.
Remove bay leaf. Add shrimp to skillet. Cook, stirring constantly, until heated through, about 1 minute. Stir in basil and pepper. Place linguine on a serving platter. Spoon sauce over top. Serve immediately.